The picture - MSG - Jena is by Michael Panse. It was sourced from Flickr and reproduced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-ND 2.0) licence. https://www.flickr.com/photos/michael-panse-mdl/9098807245/

infed.org: millions of users and hundreds of pages exploring education, learning and community. We specialize in the theory and practice of informal education, social pedagogy, lifelong learning, social action, and community learning and development.

Click to see all the main index or browse below through the different areas.

newMehrgenerationenhäuser – multi-generational meeting houses – animation, care and pedagogy. Mehrgenerationenhäuser – multi-generational meeting houses – are attracting growing interest outside their home in Germany. In this piece we examine what they are, how they function, and their relevance to some key issues faced by local communities – in particular around ageing. We will also look at the role of social pedagogues within them and some issues with Mehrgenerationenhäuser .

new in the archivesPaul Fordham – Informal, non-formal and formal education programmes. In this piece Paul Fordham explores the emergence of the influential typology of education programmes as informal, non-formal and formal. The notions are considered in relation to the concern to foster economic development. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of non-formal education in relation to participation, purposes and methods. Debates around ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches are also explored.

new in the archives: Stephen D. Brookfield – Self-directed learning. Stephen D. Brookfield explores the notion of self-directed learning. He takes Knowles’ (1975) influential definition as a starting point and then explores some of the problems surrounding the idea. Brookfield highlights two particular characteristics that move the discussion from a technical to a critical realm: authentic control, and access to resources. He argues that it is possible to rescue the term from the individualistic and atomistic narrow uses to which it has sometimes been put.

new in the archives: Paul V. Taylor – Dialogue, conversation and praxis. In this piece Paul V. Taylor examines: dialogue as a norm of behaviour; dialogue as a theory of knowledge; dialogic competence; conversation and interpretation; and praxis as action and reflection.

ideas:

Key concepts and theories in education, learning, and community. Click for a full listing of articles.

Featured: what is community development? The idea of community development grew, in large part, out of the activities of colonial administrators. We examine this legacy and the theory and practice that emerged. We also look to the body of overlapping ideas, including community participation, community organization and community work. In this piece we suggest that community development is perhaps best used to describe those approaches which use a mix of informal education, collective action and organizational development and focus on cultivating social justice, mutual aid, local networks and communal coherence.

Featured: caring in education. In this article Nel Noddings explores the nature of caring relations and encounters in education and some of the difficulties educators have with them. She also looks at caring relations as the foundation for pedagogical activity.

thinkers and innovators:

Exploring thinkers and innovators central to the development of the theory and practice of lifelong learning, social action, pedagogy and informal education. Click for a full listing of articles.

Featured: bell hooks on education. Barry Burke assesses the contribution that bell hooks has made to thinking about education and sets this within the context of her biography and work.

Featured John Ruskin on education. John Ruskin altered the way we look at art and architecture, and was an influential social critic and advocate of economic change and reform. His desire to advance reform and to deepen people’s appreciation of art inevitably brought him to teaching and to education. His work was to have lasting significance. But what did Ruskin advocate? What was special about his approach? Sara E. Atwood explores his contribution.

practice

Developments within different areas of work. Click to explore.

Updated: Extended schools and services: theory, practice and issues. In an attempt to emulate full-service schooling initiatives in the USA an English scheme looked to develop extended schools providing a range of activities and services often beyond the school day, ‘to help meet the needs of its pupils, their families and the wider community’. We explore the reality – the theory and practice – and the issues around extended schooling and services.

archives

Charles Dickens - believed to be in the public domain and sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Materials that illuminate the development of informal education, community learning and development, lifelong learning and social pedagogy. Click for the full archive collection

New: Paul Fordham – Informal, non-formal and formal education programmes. In this piece Paul Fordham explores the emergence of the influential typology of education programmes as informal, non-formal and formal. The notions are considered in relation to the concern to foster economic development.

New: Stephen D. Brookfield – Self-directed learning. Stephen D. Brookfield explores the notion of self-directed learning. He highlights two particular characteristics that move the discussion from a technical to a critical realm: authentic control, and access to resources. He argues that it is possible to rescue the term from the individualistic and atomistic narrow uses to which it has sometimes been put.

New: Paul Taylor – Dialogue, conversation and praxis. In this piece Paul V. Taylor examines: dialogue as a norm of behaviour; dialogue as a theory of knowledge; dialogic competence; conversation and interpretation; and praxis as action and reflection.

Featured: Charles Dickens – A sleep to startle us: An article on ragged schooling that appeared in Household Words in 1852.

Featured: Octavia Hill – Space for the people. This article by Octavia Hill, included in Homes of the London Poor (1883), outlines her case for the need for all people to be able to access space: places to sit in, places to play in, places to stroll in, and places to spend a day in.

Acknowledgements: The picture ‘Flickr contacts’ is by Kevin Dooley. Sourced from Flickr, it is reproduced under a Creative Commons  Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) licence. https://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/5089112951.

The picture of Charles Dickens is believed to be in the public domain and was sourced from Wikimedia Commons. Picture: community by Brendan Murphy. Sourced from Flickr and reproduced under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) licence. http://www.flickr.com/photos/murphyeppoon/5166862608/